Sparrho is your recommendation engine for scientific information. Interactions like indicating your keywords and favourite articles in Sparrho teach us how to aggregate, distill and recommend content relevant to you – allowing you to keep a bird’s eye view on science. With over 55 million scientific sources finding the right information for you is a daunting task. Staying up to date with the latest in your field should be as easy as browsing the news, and discovering great science. Linear keyword search narrows what you see, Sparrho works to broaden your horizons and help you find things you didn’t even realise you were looking for. It was founded in 2013 out of frustration by two Oxbridge scientists and now has an amazing team based between Cambridge and London, UK.


List of academic databases and search engines

Free Online Full-text Articles
(List limited to journals published online with the assistance of HighWire Press) HighWire Press is the largest archive of free full-text science on Earth! As of 3/13/15, we are assisting in the online publication of 2,431,120 free full-text articles and 7,648,442 total articles. There are 34 sites with free trial periods, and 122 completely free sites. 288 sites have free back issues, and 1398 sites have pay per view!


ingentaconnect from Publishing Technology distributes your content to over 1.4 million individual users a month. An all-inclusive and cost-effective package. ingentaconnect gives you access to the largest linking network of its kind online. ingentaconnect is ideal for publishers looking to put their content online for the first time, increase the global visibility of their publications, or who are looking for an additional online channel to market.

ScienceDirect® Home

is a leading full-text scientific database offering journal articles and book chapters from nearly 2,500 journals and 26,000 books.


OpenDirectory Science

IPL2 Science and Technology


Education (Science)

The Guides who create our content are mission-driven and focused on helping our users address their needs. The Guides are credible experts in their fields who understand not only their areas of expertise, but also how users consume knowledge on in order to meet the diverse needs that arise in their everyday lives.

Natural Sciences and Mathematics The WWW Virtual Library

Science Processes 
Definitions of scientific theory on the Web
A scientific theory is an established and experimentally verified fact or collection of facts about the world. Unlike the everyday use of the word theory, it is not an unproved idea, or just some theoretical speculation. The latter meaning of a ‘theory’ in science is called a hypothesis.
A hypothesis that is widely accepted by the scientific community.
An explanation of why and how a specific natural phenomenon occurs. A lot of hypotheses are based on theories. In turn, theories may be redefined as new hypotheses are tested. …
A possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observations and results from many investigations
·a theory that explains scientific observations; “scientific theories must be falsifiable”

Fact, Hypothesis, and Theory
A theory has to have a basis, in fact, it must have a very strong basis. A theory is a scientifically acceptable principle that is offered to explain a vast body of facts, and is supported by an overwhelming body of evidence. You can’t have a theory before you have the evidence. Science starts out with observations – facts that are not generally disputed. For example, the sky is blue; grass is green; birds migrate south for the winter and find their way to specific locations; the high temperature at the airport yesterday was 52 degrees. Accumulate enough facts and you can ask and perhaps answer a general question (why is the sky blue, or the grass green? How do birds know where to go? What makes the weather change?).

consensus science

See sound science.

deductive reasoning

Using logic to arrive at a specific conclusion based on a generalization or premise. It goes from the general to the specific. Compare inductive reasoning.


Procedure a scientist uses to study some phenomenon under known conditions. Scientists conduct some experiments in the laboratory and others in nature. The resulting scientific data or facts must be verified or confirmed by repeated observations and measurements, ideally by several different investigators.

frontier science

Preliminary scientific data, hypotheses, and models that have not been widely tested and accepted. Compare junk science, sound science.

inductive reasoning

Using observations and facts to arrive at generalizations or hypotheses. It goes from the specific to the general and is widely used in science. Compare deductive reasoning.

junk science

Scientific results or hypotheses presented as sound science but not having undergone the rigors of the peer review process. Compare frontier science, sound science.


Attempts to discover order in nature and use that knowledge to make predictions about what should happen in nature. See frontier science, scientific data, scientific hypothesis, scientific law, scientific methods, scientific model, scientific theory, sound science.

scientific data

Facts obtained by making observations and measurements. Compare scientific hypothesis, scientific law, scientific methods, scientific model, scientific theory.

scientific hypothesis

An educated guess that attempts to explain a scientific law or certain scientific observations. Compare scientific data, scientific law, scientific methods, scientific model, scientific theory.

scientific law

Description of what scientists find happening in nature repeatedly in the same way, without known exception. See first law of thermodynamics, law of conservation of matter, second law of thermodynamics. Compare scientific data, scientific hypothesis, scientific methods, scientific model, scientific theory.

scientific methods

The ways scientists gather data and formulate and test scientific hypotheses, models, theories, and laws. See scientific data, scientific hypothesis, scientific law, scientific model, scientific theory.

scientific model

A simulation of complex processes and systems. Many are mathematical models that are run and tested using computers.

scientific theory

A well-tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis. Comparescientific data, scientific hypothesis, scientific law, scientific methods, scientific model.

sound science

Scientific data, models, theories, and laws that are widely accepted by scientists considered experts in the area of study. Science utilizing the principles of logic (Sound arguments). These results of science are very reliable. Compare frontier science, junk science.

Miller, T.M. Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions (2005), Thomson Brooks/Cole Companion Website. Retrieved August 22, 2007 from

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